The Chickasaw Nation
Present day site of Tchichatala De Crenay 1733, The Territory Between the Chattahoochee and Mississippi Rivers Woodcut Bust of a Chickasaw Warrior by Bernard Romans
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The Chickasaw Villages Dating the Chickasaw Beads Chickasaw Villages Defined by Bead Dating

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Glass Trade Beads
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Database Fields: Artifacts

Database Fields: Glass Beads

Glass Bead Descriptions

Glass Bead Database

Glass Bead Sequence
A Beginning

Major Bead Types/Varieties
Glass Bead Chronology - Start/Finish

Glass Bead Sequence
Major Bead Fields

Glass Bead Sequence
Minor Bead Fields

Glass Bead Sequence
Major & Minor Glass Bead Fields

Glass Bead Chronology
An End, A Beginning

Glass Bead Chronology
Dating

Other Artifacts - Dating

Beads as Heirlooms

Bead Dating Conclusions

Other Factors
Appreciation

Paper 2 Figures

Paper 2 Tables

Paper 2 References


Bead Dating - Conclusions

WIIIB, while present in the collections, did not occur with any acceptable features. Had a number of WIIIB features been represented, the author believes that WIIIB would date chronologically after IA/IIIA Translucent, which would make the beads immediately prior to WIIIB date earlier, particularly IA/IIIA Translucent. In addition, IA/IIIA Translucent occurs predominantly in navy blue. The IA/IIIA Translucent found with WIA tended to be clear or colors other than navy blue. Perhaps the navy blue IA/IIIA Translucent is older than the clear IA/IIIA Translucent. Future workers may wish to attribute this type by color.

Table 10 indicates a sort of major and minor beads by dates. Note that the drawn beads date early and late in the sequence with the mandrels filling in the middle. The bead date represented is the start of trade for that bead type/variety.

Table 10 Major/Minor Beads by Date

Varieties Date
IF/IIIF 1790
WIB Wrap 1790
IIIA 1790
WIE (2) 1772
IA/IIIA Opaque 1763
WID 1758
IA/IIIA Translucent 1745
WIA 1728
WIC 1728
WIIC 1728
WIB 1728
WIIIC 1728
WIIA 1712
WIIB 1712
WIIIA 1703
IIB/IVB 1692
WIE (1) 1692
IVB (IVA2) 1692
IIA1/IVA1 1685
IIA/IVA Other 1685
IIIA1 1685
IIA7/IVA7 1675
IVA2 1669
IA/IIIA XL 1665
IB/IIIB XL 1665
WIIIB N/A

Some of the neighboring bead types/varieties on Table 10 share other attributes than date. For instance, IIA1/IVA1 and IIA/IVA Other are separated by color only and serve as the matrix for the later dated IIB/IVB. Many of the wire-wound beads bead types/varieties express the same colors of glass. For instance, the common dated WIIA and WIIB use the same colors: primarily blue, clear and amber. WIA, WIC, and WIIC commonly occur as the milky blue glass. WIB shares color characteristics of both mandrel groups-WIIA and WIA. With this insight, sequence groupings could have been assumed.

Table 11 addresses dominant bead size over time. Recall that the very small and small beads were not included in this paper. Still, size does demonstrate change in bead size. By the 1760s and 1770s the bead sizes were dominated by medium sizes.

Table 11 Major Bead Size

Major Bead   Dominant Years Between
Type/Variety Date Size Date
WIE (2) 1772 Medium 0
IA/IIIA Opaque 1763 Medium 9
WID 1758 Medium 5
IA/IIIA Translucent 1745 Large 13
WIA 1728 XL 17
WIC 1728 XL 0
WIIA 1712 VL 16
WIIIA 1703 Large 9
IIB/IVB 1692 Large 11
IIA1/IVA1 1685 Large 7
IIA/IVA Other 1685 Large 0
IIA7/IVA7 1675 Large 10
IVA2 1669 Large 4

Table 12 provides a sort that ranks the features. Note that four of the six highest ranked (number of) features date prior to 1692. That the Chickasaw population (Swanton ISUS 118) was much larger in the late seventeenth century than two generations later may explain the high number of early features. The two later dated bead type/varieties, WID and IA/IIIA Opaque that had a high number of features may be explained by the devastating 1784 measles outbreak addressed by Malcolm McGee (Draper 6).

It is interesting to note that neither the very earliest dated beads nor the latest occurred in a significant number of features, as would be expected. The earlier dated beads existed pre sustained trade while the latter dated bead features were minimized due to villages' abandonment.

Table 12 demonstrates a definitive break in the bead dating and the number of features from 1728 (WIA and WIC) until 1758 (WID). During this period, the Chickasaw that remained in their villages were confined to Old Town (Cook Paper1 Figure 10). Trade was not reaching the Chickasaw consistently due to French sponsored Indian raids; this was noted by the Carolina traders living with the Nation.

Table 12 Number Features Sort

Bead Type/ Number   Beads/ Start of Trade
Varieties Features Beads Features Date
IIA1/IVA1 69 7720 111.9 1685
IIA/IVA Other 51 2312 45.3 1685
WID 44 8521 193.7 1758
IA/IIIA Opaque 43 16282 378.7 1763
IIB/IVB 43 43 14.1 1692
IIA7/IVA7 36 1812 50.3 1675
WIA 32 982 30.7 1728
WIE (2) 27 3618 134.0 1772
WIIIA 23 514 22.3 1703
IVA2 21 709 33.8 1669
WIC 18 224 12.4 1728
WIIA 18 367 367 1712
WIE (1) 12 72 6.0 1692
IA/IIIA XL 8 100 12.5 1665
WIIC 8 31 3.9 1728
IA/IIIA Translucent 7 1748 249.7 1745
WIB 7 97 13.9 1728
IB/IIIB XL 6 201 33.5 1665
IIIA1 5 141 28.2 1685
WIIB 5 24 4.8 1712
IF/IIIF 3 317 105.7 1790
WIB Wrap 3 241 80.3 1790
WIIIC 3 26 8.7 1728
IVB (IVA2) 2 49 24.5 1692
IIIA 1 12 12.0 1790
WIIIB 0 0 0.0 N/A