The Chickasaw Nation
Present day site of Tchichatala De Crenay 1733, The Territory Between the Chattahoochee and Mississippi Rivers Woodcut Bust of a Chickasaw Warrior by Bernard Romans
The Chickasaw Villages Dating the Chickasaw Beads Chickasaw Villages Defined by Bead Dating


Glass Trade Beads

Database Fields: Artifacts

Database Fields: Glass Beads

Glass Bead Descriptions

Glass Bead Database

Glass Bead Sequence
A Beginning

Major Bead Types/Varieties
Glass Bead Chronology - Start/Finish

Glass Bead Sequence
Major Bead Fields

Glass Bead Sequence
Minor Bead Fields

Glass Bead Sequence
Major & Minor Glass Bead Fields

Glass Bead Chronology
An End, A Beginning

Glass Bead Chronology

Other Artifacts - Dating

Beads as Heirlooms

Bead Dating Conclusions

Other Factors

Paper 2 Figures

Paper 2 Tables

Paper 2 References

Glass Bead Chronology - An End, a Beginning

It should be noted that WIB Wrap and IF/IIIF represent six burial features that were discovered in the Chickasaw villages. IF/IIIF (Courtney-Rausch 42, 51) also occurred outside the villages thirty miles south at the Bynum Mound site. Recall we previously stated that the Chickasaw villages' abandonment began before 1797. Some time must be allowed for the features in the villages to occur, so a conservative seven years must have lapsed as the start of trade date for WIB Wrap and IF/IIIF. We offer 1790 as the start of trade for WIB Wrap and IF/IIIF.

Previously we selected 1690 as the 'start of sustained trade'. Herein, 'start of sustained trade' means that the Carolina plantation owners and/or merchants visited the Chickasaw regularly, i.e. a Carolinian conducted trade. However, we acknowledge from the bead sequence that two major beads, IVA2 and IIA7/IVA7, preceded that date. We will present the chronology with another start date, 'start of trade', so that the earliest bead dates can be determined for the sequence. The 'start of trade' means the date when the Chickasaw sustained trade with the Carolinians. The Chickasaw had demonstrated the motivation for trade prior to the 'start of sustained trade'. Further, the Chickasaw could pass through Indian territory easier than the Carolinians. We may deduce that the 'start of sustained trade' could not have occurred until the trading path was open and available for the Carolinians. Therefore, the Carolina/Chickasaw 'start of sustained trade' could not have occurred earlier than the Lower Creek trade (Crane 34) or 1685 when the Carolinians thru Dr. Henry Woodward established trade with Coweta and Kasihta. Crane (Crane 36) noted, "In 1687 other traders appeared in the Creek towns". Nairne (Moore 50) in 1708 while with the Chickasaw wrote, "When Doctor Woodward about 20 years agoe made peace with the Ochesees and Tallapoosies these people haveing then Friendship with the Chicasaws he sent two of his men hither, who brought them aquanted with the English Ever since, they have traded with Carolina ". From Nairne the Carolinian "Start of Sustained Trade" may have been slightly earlier than 1690, perhaps 1688. The 'start of trade' we may assume began earlier than 1690, perhaps after the reduction of the Westo (Crane 19) in 1680. The year 1685 will be used as the 'start of trade'. The dated bead chronology below assumes both bead 'start' trade dates-1685 and 1690.