The Chickasaw Nation
Present day site of Tchichatala De Crenay 1733, The Territory Between the Chattahoochee and Mississippi Rivers Woodcut Bust of a Chickasaw Warrior by Bernard Romans
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Glass Trade Beads
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Database Fields: Artifacts

Database Fields: Glass Beads

Glass Bead Descriptions

Glass Bead Database

Glass Bead Sequence
A Beginning

Major Bead Types/Varieties
Glass Bead Chronology - Start/Finish

Glass Bead Sequence
Major Bead Fields

Glass Bead Sequence
Minor Bead Fields

Glass Bead Sequence
Major & Minor Glass Bead Fields

Glass Bead Chronology
An End, A Beginning

Glass Bead Chronology
Dating

Other Artifacts - Dating

Beads as Heirlooms

Bead Dating Conclusions

Other Factors
Appreciation

Paper 2 Figures

Paper 2 Tables

Paper 2 References


Glass Bead Chronology - Dating

The major sequenced beads are listed on Table 6. Note that IIA1/IVA1 & IIA/IVA Other and WIA & WIC are sequenced as temporal equals. Any combination of these major beads could be selected for dating. The most consistent results were produced when using IIAI/IVA1 and WIA, which appeared in more features.

For dating, the numeric graphical value for each major bead in succession was noted, beginning with IIA1/IVA1. The numeric value from the graphs "w/o Exclusives" was used as the exclusive bead features do not demonstrate association. The inverse of these values were used to develop a ratio using the beginning (either 1685 or 1690) and ending (1790) dates provided; thereby, a date for each major sequenced bead was determined.

For the major beads outside the beginning/ending dates, IVA2 and IIA7/IVA7, their dates were determined by simple ratios to IIA1/IVA1. Table 7 reflects the dates determined for each major glass bead.

Table 7 The Major Bead Dates

Major Bead Start of Sustained Start of
Type/Variety Trade Trade
IVA2 IB/IIIB XL
IA/IIIA XL
 
IVA2 1675 1669
IIA7/IVA7 1681 1675
IIA1/IVA1
IIA/IVA Other
1690 1685
IIB/IVB 1697 1692
WIIIA 1707 1703
WIIA 1716 1712
WIA WIC 1731 1728
IA/IIIA
Translucent
1747 1745
WID 1760 1758
IA/IIIA Opaque 1764 1763
WIE (2) 1773 1772
IF/IIIF (Minor Bead) 1790 1790

The "Start of Trade" dates present the Chickasaw as the active instigator/merchants of trade as opposed to the Carolina planters. The "Start of Trade" chronology means that major glass bead trade started at or before the founding of Charleston.

That is predictable, as Marquette (Malone 1922 233) noted that the Chickasaw had trade items in 1673. The Chickasaw had another source of trade, the Spanish Missions of Florida or Indians who traded there. Certainly, "Spanish" style iron hoes are common artifacts among the Chickasaw.

We have noted two earlier minor beads that could contribute to the chronology, IB/IIIB I XL and IA/IIIA XL. Certainly, these must have Spanish contexts. If dated to IIA1/IVA1 by ratios, then IB/IIIB XL and IA/IIIA XL would date to 1665.

While there are a number of Trade Lists from Carolinian (and Georgian) and French sources, few have any descriptive details about the glass beads. One (MPA I 53) list includes, "White, blue, yellow and agate beads, very large." Perhaps this reference addresses our WIA and WIC bead types. The list dates to the latter part of 1729. Our 'Start of Trade' date for these beads is 1728.